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Early American Surrealisms, 1920-1940


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Primary sources

1Agha, M.F. “Surrealism or the Purple Cow.” Vogue (1936): 61, 129-131, 146.

2Art Digest 11:6 (December 15, 1936).

3“American Art and the Museum.” The Bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art 8:1 (November 1940): 3-26.

4“The American City Night-and-Day – by Dalí.” American Weekly (March 31, 1935): 5.

5“American Country Life Interpreted by M. Dalí.” American Weekly (April 28, 1935): 7.

6“The Amusements: Right this Way!” The New York Times (April 30, 1939): 135.

7Andrews, Wayne. “The Evocative Treason of 449 Golden Doorknobs.” transition 23 (July 1935): 7-10.

8---. “Take a Number from One to Ten.” transition 24 (June 1936): 40-45.

9---.The Surrealist Parade. New York: New Directions, 1990.

10Barr, Alfred J. Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1936.

11Benn, Gottfried. “The Structure of the Personality, Outline of a Geology of the ‘I’.” transition 21 (1932): 206-14.

12Boyle, Kay. “A Paris Letter for Charles Henri Ford.” Blues 8 (1930): 32-33.

13Breit, Harvey. “With the Little Mags.” Partisan Review 9:4 (1942).

14Breton, André. “Positions politiques du surréalisme.” October 1935. In Œuvres complètes, II. Paris: Gallimard, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, 1992. 411-15.

15---. Prolégomènes à un troisième manifeste du surréalisme ou non. VVV 1 (June 1942). In Œuvres complètes, III. Paris: Gallimard, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, 1999. 5-15.

16---. “Réponse à une enquête de Pierre Mabille.” 16 June 1941. In Œuvres complètes, III. Paris: Gallimard, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, 1999. 175-76.

17---. “Situation du surréalisme entre les deux guerres.” VVV 2:3 (March 1943). In Œuvres complètes, III. Paris: Gallimard, Bibliothèque de la Pléiade, 1999.

18Burnett, Whit. “Home Edition, A Scenario.” transition 13 (Summer 1928): 199-204.

19---. “Balls, Or Simple Error.” transition 14 (Fall 1928): 121-5.

20---. “An Essay in Compostography or the Life in the Day of the Squidge.” transition 19-20 (June 1930): 185-7.

21Byrne, Barry. “Surrealism Passes.” The Commonweal 26:10 (July 2, 1937): 262-263.

22Cahill, Holger. “American Art Today: Gallery of American Art Today New York World’s Fair.” New York: National Art Society, 1939.

23Caspers, Frank. “Surrealism in Overalls.” Scribner’s 104:2 (August, 1938): 17-21.

24Cowley, Malcom. Exile’s Return. A Literary Odyssey of the 1920s. (1934) New York: The Viking Press, 1951.

25Crosby, Harry. “Dreams 1928-1929.” transition 18 (November 1929): 32-6.

26Dalí, Salavador. The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí. Transl. Haakon M. Chevalier. New York: Dial Press, 1942.

27Duff, Charles. Handrail and the Wampus, Three Segments of a Polyphonic Biogriad. London: Caime Press Limited, 1931.

28Emory, William Closson. “Love in the West.” transition 13 (Summer 1928): 33-41.

29Ford, Charles Henri. “From a Record of Myself.” Harry Ransom Center. The University of Texas at Austin. Charles Henri Ford Papers. Series 1, Box, 5, Folder 3.

30---. “Notes on Neo-Modernism.” Harry Ransom Center. The University of Texas at Austin. Charles Henri Ford Papers. Series 4, Box 4, Folder 2.

31---. I Will Be What I Am. Harry Ransom Center. The University of Texas at Austin. Charles Henri Ford Papers. Series 4, Box, 21, Folder 2.

32---. “The Poem in Prose.” Harry Ransom Center. The University of Texas at Austin. Charles Henri Ford Papers. Series 1, Box, 4, Folder 6.

33---. Scrapbook: 1928-1931. Beinecke Library. Yale University. YCAL MSS 32. Charles Henri Ford Papers. Oversize, Box 6, Folder 327.

34---. “Suite.” Blues: a Magazine of New Rhythms 2:7 (Fall 1929): 31-32.

35---. The Garden of Disorder. New York: New Directions, 1939.

36---. “How to Write a Chainpoem.” In New Directions in Prose & Poetry. Ed. James Laughlin. Norfolk, Connecticut: New Directions, 1940. 369.

37---. “International Chainpoem.” In New Directions in Prose & Poetry. Ed. James Laughlin. Norfolk, Connecticut: New Directions, 1940. 370.

38---. The Overturned Lake. Cincinnati: Little Man Press, 1941.

39---. Out of the Labyrinth: Selected Poems. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1991.

40---. Operation Minotaur. Woodstock, New York: Shivastan Publishing, 2006.

41Ford, Charles Henri & Tyler, Parker. The Young and Evil. (1933) London: Gay Men Press, 1989.

42Fouchet, Max-Pol. “Le Surréalisme en Amérique.” Fontaine 32 (1944).

43Frost, Rosamund. “First Fruits of Exile: What Recent Emigrés Artists Have Done in America.” Art News (15 February 1943): 23.

44Godwin, Murray. “From Work on Sidetrack.” transition 4 (July 1927): 172-4 and transition 15 (February 1929): 42-6.

45Greenberg, Clement. “Surrealist Painting.” The Nation CLIX: 7, 8, 12 and 19 (August 1944).

46---. “The Renaissance of the Little Mag.” Partisan Review 3-1, (February 1941): 73.

47---. “L’Art américain au XXe siècle.” Les Temps modernes 11-12 (août-septembre 1946).

48Guggenheim, Peggy. Art of this Century: Objects, Drawings, Photographs, Paintings, Sculpture, Collages, 1910 to 1942. New York: Art of this Century, 1942.

49---. Out of this Century, Confessions of an Art Addict. London: André Deutsch, 1946.

50Hoffman, Leigh. “Anamnesis.” transition 11 (February 1928): 65-70.

51---. “Catastrophe.” transition 13 (Summer 1928): 76-81.

52Hughes, Charlotte. “Education in Art Taken to Masses.” New York Times (January 10, 1937).

53Janis, Sydney. “The School of Paris Comes to US.” Decision 2: 5-6 (November-December 1941): 85-95.

54---. They Taught Themselves: American Primitive Painters of the 20th Century. New York: The Dial Press, 1942.

55---. Abstract and Surrealist Art in America. New York: Arno Press, 1944.

56Jewell, Edward Alden. “Cosy Surrealism.” New York Times (November 23, 1945).

57---. “Dalí Surrealisme Rampant at Show.” New York Times (November 22, 1934).

58---. “Despiau and Senor Dalí.” New York Times (March 26, 1939).

59---. “Fantastic Ghosts of Yesteryear.” New York Times (August 3, 1941): X7.

60---. “From Fatin-Latour to Surrealisme.” New York Times (January 17, 1932).

61---. Have We an American Art? New York: Longmans, Green & Company, 1939.

62---. “In the Realm of Art: Hectic Week Full of Contradiction.” New York Times (November 23, 1941).

63---. “Layman and Artist Cudgel Paintings and Attack the Museum of Modern Art—The Institution’s Relation to the Public.” New York Times (November 30, 1941): X9.

64---. “Museum Displays ‘Fantastic’ in Art.” New York Times (July 30, 1941).

65---. “Shock Troops in Review.” New York Times (March 8, 1936): X9.

66---. “Show Lists Works of Surrealist Art: Paintings of Rene Magritte Are Seen for First Time Here at Julien Levy Gallery.” New York Times (January 8, 1936).

67Jolas, Eugene. “Surrealism: Ave Atque Vale.” Fantasy, A Literary Quarterly 7:1 (1941): 23-30.

68Josephson, Matthew. Life Among the Surrealists: A Memoir. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1962.

69Laughlin, James. “Montaigu O’Reilly and Wayne Andrews.” In The Surrealist Parade. New York: New Directions, 1990. 155-63.

70Laughlin, James. Preface to Pianos of Sympathy by Montagu O'Reilly (Wayne Andrews). Norfolk, Ct: New Directions, 1936.

71Leonard, Stewart. “Stewart Leonard Adds More Notes Upon Surrealism.” The Times Recorder (February 28, 1937): 10.

72Levi-Strauss, Claude. “The Art of the Northwest Coast at the American Museum of Natural History.” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 6:24 (July 1943): 175-182.

73---. “New York pré et post-figuratif.” In Le Regard éloigné. Paris: Plon, 1989.

74Levy, Julien. Memoir of an Art Gallery. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1977.

75---. Surrealism. New York: Black Sun Press, 1936.

76“Links Surrealism and Ads.” New York Times (January 23, 1937).

77Lundeberg, Helen. New Classicism. 1934. In Helen Lundeberg, An 80th Birthday Celebration. Introduction by Ilene Susan Fort. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art/American Art Council, 1988.

78“Marvelous and Fantastic.” Time 28:24 (December 14, 1936): 60-62.

79Masson, André. “Antilles.” Hémisphères (Autumn-Winter 1943-1944): 21.

80Morris, George L. K. “Art Chronicle: The Museum of Modern Art (as surveyed from the Avant-Garde).” Partisan Review 7:3 (May-June 1940).

81McBride, Henry. “At the Whitney Museum.” New York Sun (January 31, 1940).

82---. “The Battle of the Surrealists.” New York Sun (December 19, 1936).

83---. “The Classic Dalí.” New York Sun (April 26, 1941).

84---. “Dalí and Miró.” New York Sun (November 11, 1941).

85---. “The Magic Realists.” The New York Sun (February 12, 1943): 19.

86McMahon, A. Philip. “Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism.” Parnassus 9:4 (April 1937): 47.

87Miller, Henry. “An Open Letter to Surrealists Everywhere.” In The Cosmological Eye, New York: New Directions, 1973 (1939). 151-96. “Into the Night Life.” 240-68. “Un être étoilique.” 269-91.

88Motherwell, Robert. “The Modern Painter’s World.” DYN 1:6 (November 1944): 9-14.

89Mumford, Lewis. “Surrealism and Civilization.” The New Yorker 12:44 (December 19, 1936): 76-79.

90Niedecker, Lorine. “Transition.” “Promise of Brilliant Funeral.” “Canvass.” “Fall.” In Collected Works. Ed. Jenny Penberthy. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press: 2002. 23, 24, 33 and 206.

91Onslow Ford, Gordon. “Morphologies psychologiques.” London Bulletin (June 1940): 29.

92---. “Notes sur Matta et la peinture (1937-1941).” In Matta. Paris: Editions du Centre Georges Pompidou, 1985.

93---. “Paalen and Dyn.” In Wolfgang Paalen’s Dyn. The Complete Reprints. Ed. Christian Kloyber. Wien and New York: Springer, 2000. xi-xv.

94Paalen, Wolfgang. “Farewell au Surréalisme.” DYN 1 (April-May 1942): 26.

95---. “Paysage totémique I.” DYN 1 (April-May 1942): 46-50.

96---. “Paysage totémique II.” DYN 2 (July-August 1942): 42-47.

97---. “Paysage totémique III.” DYN 3 (Fall 1942): 27-31.

98---. “Book Reviews: Exil. Fata Morgana. VVV.” DYN. Amerindian Number 4-5 (December 1943): 81.

99Penrose, Antony. The Lives of Lee Miller. London: Thames and Hudson, 1985.

100Péret, Benjamin. La Parole est à Péret. New York: Editions surréalistes, 1943.

101Parker, Robert Allerton. A Yankee Saints: John Humphrey Noyes and the Oneida Community. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1935.

102---. “Such Pulps as Dreams are Made Of.” VVV Almanach for 1943 1-2 (March 1943): 62-66.

103Pound, Ezra. “The Coward Surrealists.” In Contemporary Poetry and Prose 7 (November 1936).

104Read, Herbert. “Myth, Dream and Poetry.” transition 27 (Spring 1938): 175-192.

105---. “Surrealism and the Romantic Principle.” (1936) In Romanticism, Points of View. Ed. Robert F. Gleckner and Gerald E. Enscoe. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1975. 96-107.

106Ross of Balnagowan (Lady). “Surrealism.” Courier-Journal (February 16, 1930): 29.

107“‘She was a Surrealist Woman – Like a Figure in a Dream.’ The New Art in Show Window Display.” The Daily Telegraph (January 9, 1937).

108“Shirts that Will Bloom in the Spring.” News Record (April 3, 1940).

109“A Show of Surrealism and What Led Up to It.” The Milwaukee Journal (May 17, 1937).

110“Surrealisme has its days in Hartford Art Gallery.” Springfield Union Republican (November 15, 1931).

111“Surrealisme.” New York Times (November 26, 1933).

112“Surrealism.” Cumberland Evening Times (January 16, 1935): 2.

113“Surrealist Art is Shown by Museum.” The Evening Times (March 15, 1937): 5.

114“Surrealism on Parade.” Life 14 (December 1936).

115Sweeney, James Johnson. “Eleven Europeans in America.” The Museum of Modern Art Bulletin 13:4-5 (1946).

116“The Talk of the Town: Surrealist Episode.” New Yorker 12.48 (January 16, 1937): 13.

117“Topic of the Times.” New York Times (December 22, 1936).

118Tracy, Charles. “Seven Ages of Woman.” “Mother of a Clown.” “Ho to AA, A Stage Playlet in Two Scenes.” (extracts from An American Sur-Realist). transition 24 (June 1936): 29-36, 25 (Fall 1936): 22-5 and 26 (1937): 134-40.

119Tyler, Parker. “This Dreaming Image.” Blues: a Magazine of New Rhythms 1:2 (March 1929): 49-50.

120“Out of a Blue Sky.” transition: an International Quarterly for Creative Experiment 16-17 (June 1929): n.p.

121West, Nathanael. Novels and Other Writings. New York: The Library of America, 1997.

122Whitsett, George. “Dancing Rope.” transition 24 (June 1936): 38. “Hotel.” 38-9.

123Williams, William Carlos. “THEESSENTIALROAR.” transition 10 (January 1928): 49-50. “THAT POEM JAY JAY.” “WELLROUNDEDTHIGHS.” “THE DEAD GROW.” transition 13 (Summer 1928): 55-58.

124---. “For a New Magazine.” Blues 1:4 (1929). In Blues: A Magazine of New Rhythms (1929-1930). New York: Johnson Reprint, 1967. 30-32.

125---. A Novelette (1932). In Imaginations. Ed. Webster Schott. New York: New Directions, 1970.

126---. “The Tortuous Straightness of Charles Henri Ford.” In The Garden of Disorder and Other Poems, Charles Henry Ford (author). Norfolk, Conn.: New Directions, 1938. 9-11.

127---. “Surrealism and the Moment.” View 2:2 (May 1942): 13.

128---. The Great American Novel. (1923) Los Angeles: Green Integer, 2003.

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227Simic, Charles, Dime-Store Alchemy, The Art of Joseph Cornell. New York: New York Review of Books, 2006.

228Tashjian, Dickran. Willliam Carlos Williams and the American Scene 1920-1940. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art / Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 1978.

229---. A Boatload of Madmen, Surrealism and the American Avant-Garde 1920-1950. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1995.

230---. “Williams and Automatic Writing: Against the Presence of Surrealism.” William Carlos Williams Review 22:1 (Spring 1996): 5-16.

231Tyler, Parker. The Divine Comedy of Pavel Tchelitchew. New York: Fleet Club Corp., 1967.

232Veitch, Jonathan. American Superrealism, Nathanael West and the Politics of Representation in the 1930s. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1997.

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234Wayne E. Arnold. “Urban Spaces and Architecturally Defined Identity in Nathanael West’s Miss Lonelyhearts.” European journal of American studies [Online], Vol. 9, no. 2 | 2014.

235Waldman, Diane. Collage, Assemblage and the Found Object. New York: H. N. Abrams, 1992.

236Wallock, Leonard. New York, Culture Capital of the World 1940-1965. New York: Rizzoli, 1988.

237Waltz, Robin. Pulp Surrealism, Insolent Popular Culture in Early Twentieth-Century Paris. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2000.

238Weaver, Mike. William Carlos Williams: The American Background. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.

239Weld, Jacqueline Bograd. Peggy, the Wayward Guggenheim. New York: Dutton, 1986.

240Watson, Steven. “Introduction.” Charles Henri Ford and Parker Tyler. The Young and Evil (1933). New York: Richard Kasak, 1996. n.p.

241Wechsler, Jeffrey. Surrealism and American Art, 1931-1947. New Brunswick (N. J.): Rutgers State University, 1976.

242White, Eric B. Transatlantic Avant-Gardes: Little Magazines and Localist Modernism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2013.

243Winter, Amy. “Dynaton-The Painter/Philosophers.” In Dynaton. Before & Beyond. Ed. Frederick S. Weisman. Malibu: Museum of Art / Pepperdine University, 1991-1992.

244---. Wolfgang Paalen, DYN and the American Avant-Garde of the 1940s. PhD thesis, City University of New York, 1995.

245Zalman, Sandra. Consuming Surrealism in American Culture: Dissident Modernism. Farnham: Ashgate, 2015.


246The Booster, A Monthly in French and English. Dir. Henry Miller, Alfred Perlès and Lawrence Durrell (Paris, 1937-1938). Renamed Delta, A Monthly in French and English (Paris, 1938-1939).

247DYN. Dir. Wolfgang Paalen (Mexico, 1942-1944).

248Le Grand Jeu. Dir. Roger Gilbert-Lecomte, René Daumal and Roger Vailland (Paris, 1928-1930).

249Hémisphères. Dir. Ivan Goll (New York, 1943-1945).

250The Little Review. Dir Margaret Anderson and Jane Heap (Chicago, New York and Paris, 1914-1929).

251Minotaure, revue artistique et littéraire. Dir. Albert Skira (Paris, 1933-1939).

252La Révolution surréaliste. Dir. Pierre Naville and Benjamin Péret, dir. André Breton (Paris, July 1924-1929).

253Surréalisme. Dir. Ivan Goll (Paris, October 1924).

254Le Surréalisme au service de la Révolution. Dir. André Breton (Paris, 1930-1933).

255This Quarter. Dir. Ernest Walsh and Ethel Moorhead (Milan, Monte Carlo, 1925-1927); dir. Edward W. Titus (Paris, 1929-1932).

256transition. Dir. Eugene Jolas (Paris, 1927-1930 and 1932-1938).

257Tropiques, revue culturelle. Dir. Aimé Césaire (Fort de France, 1941-1945).

258Vertigral. Dir. Eugene Jolas (Paris, July 1932).

259View, Through the Eyes of Poets. Dir. Charles Henry Ford (New York, 1940-1947).

260VVV, Poetry, Plastic Arts, Anthropology, Sociology, Psychology. Dir. David Hare (New York, 1940-1942).


261American Artists in Paris, 1918-1939. A Transatlantic Avant-Garde. Ed. Sophie Lévy. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press / Giverny : Musée d’Art américain, 2003.

262Dada, Surrealism and Their Heritage. New York, Museum of Modern Art, 27 March-9 June 1968. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1968.

263Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism. New York, Museum of Modern Art, 7 December 1936-7 January 1937. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1936.

264First Papers of Surrealism. Whitelaw Reid Mansion 14 October-7 November 1942. New York: Coordinating Committee of French Relief Societies Inc., 1942.

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266La Révolution surréaliste. Paris, Centre Pompidou, 6 March-24 June 2002. Paris: Editions du Centre Pompidou, 2002.

267Les Surréalistes en exil et les débuts de l'école de New York. Ed. Carlos Ortega et al. Strasbourg: Musées de Strasbourg, 2000. 359-370.

268Matta. Paris, Centre George Pompidou, 3 October-16 December 1985. Paris: Editions du Centre Pompidou, 1985.

269Matta-Onslow Ford. Shared Visions. San Francisco: Weinstein Gallery, June 2003.

270Modernités plurielles, 1905-1970. Ed. Catherine Grenier. Paris: Centre Pompidou, 23 October 2013-26 January 2015. Paris: Editions du Centre Pompidou, 2013.

271Paris-New York. Paris, Centre Georges Pompidou, 1977. Paris: Gallimard, 1991.

272Surrealism and American Art. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Art Gallery, 1977.

273Surrealism and Its Affinities: The Mary Reynolds Collection. Chicago: Art Institute, 1956.

274Surrealism USA. Ed. Isabelle Dervaux. New York: National Academy Museum, 2004.

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Electronic reference

« Bibliography », Miranda [Online], 14 | 2017, Online since 04 April 2017, connection on 26 April 2017. URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/miranda.9878

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