Le suffrage universel est établi en 1928, Representation of the People Act, 1928.
consulté le 23/04/2014.
L’Irlande du Nord pour Mo Mowlam (1997), les Affaires étrangères pour Margaret Beckett (2006), et l’Intérieur pour Jacqui Smith (2007).
Depuis les années 2000, d’autres partis ont élu des femmes à leur tête : les Verts (Caroline Lucas, 2008-2012, Natalie Bennett, 2012-), les Libéraux Démocrates gallois (Kirsty Williams, 2008) et Plaid Cymru (Leanne Wood, 2012-), les travaillistes écossais (Johann Lamont, 2011-), les conservateurs écossais (Annabel Goldie, 2005-2011, Ruth Davidson, 2011-) et le Parti national écossais (Scottish National Party) (Nicola Sturgeon, 2014-).
« It will be years before a woman either leads the party or becomes Prime Minister. I certainly do not expect to see it happening in my time », <http://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/102369>, consulté le 24/06/2014.
Expression utilisée pour la première fois dans un discours à Cardiff le 16 avril 1979, <http://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/104011>, consulté le 23/06/2014.
Cela fut fréquemment le cas pour Geoffrey Howe, ministre des Finances puis des Affaires étrangères, dont le discours de démission au Parlement le 13 novembre 1990 conduit à la démission de Margaret Thatcher.
Ces termes (« wet », « dry ») datent des années 1940, mais ont été popularisés sous Margaret Thatcher, qui utilisait le terme « timoré » pour désigner les conservateurs de l’aile gauche, représentée notamment par Ian Gilmour, Jim Prior et John Biffen.
Majorité de 43 sièges en 1979, 144 en 1983 et 102 en 1987, <Erreur ! Référence de lien hypertexte non valide. consulté le 17/07/2014.
Archives de Margaret Thatcher, Margaret Thatcher Foundation, <Erreur ! Référence de lien hypertexte non valide. consulté en juin-juillet 2014.
Conservative Manifesto 1979, The Challenge of Our Times 1983, The Next Moves Forward 1987, <http://www.politicsresources.net/area/uk/man.htm>, consulté en juin 2014.
Archives parlementaires, Hansard Parliamentary Archive, <Erreur ! Référence de lien hypertexte non valide. consulté en juin 2014.
« But do you think, as a female prime minister, you have women in the back of your mind in terms of policies you make? / Yes, very much so, very much so », interview, Central TV, 18/06/1986.
« What are you doing for women? How are you helping them? / Well, we believe that women help themselves and we are trying to get more and more opportunities for them », interview, Channel 4, 24/05/1987.
« As I indicated, you do not have a policy especially for women. Women now have opportunities we never had before. I would not be here if we did not. I just want more women to take advantage of those opportunities », conférence de presse, 10/06/1987.
« Policies are for all the people. I respectfully point out that we really do not live in wholly separate compartments », Ibid.
Séance de questions au Premier ministre, 27/06/1985.
Séance de questions au Premier ministre, 22/06/1989.
Séance de questions au Premier ministre, 28/11/1989, 08/03/1990, 13/03/1990.
« Last week's Budget marked a milestone for women […] I'm proud to be a member of a government which has brought in this measure—this overdue measure of justice for women », discours, 31/03/1990. « Three million married women will pay less as a result of these changes […] These reforms have promoted women's independence and protected their privacy », discours, 18/07/1990.
581 Public General Acts, mai 1979-novembre 1990, Hansard Parliamentary Archive, <Erreur ! Référence de lien hypertexte non valide. consulté en juin 2014.
<http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/emire/UNITED%20KINGDOM/SEXDISCRIMINATIONACT1986SDA1986-EN.htm>, consulté le 18/07/2014.
« heroic narratives of masculine courage and strength and stoic national pride ».
Il convient néanmoins de garder à l’esprit que le souverain britannique, homme ou femme, reste le chef suprême des armées.
« The agenda of Britain’s first female Prime minister appeared, ironically, to collide head-on with many feminist priorities ».
« The chief silence, the chief absence from Mrs Thatcher’s convictions as a self-proclaimed ‘conviction politician’ concerns gender ».
« I find that if industry finds a woman who is very very able she is just as likely to be promoted as any other person of ability », discours, 24/02/1987.
En 2007, cette commission fut incorporée à l’Equality and Human Rights Commission, <Erreur ! Référence de lien hypertexte non valide.
« I think it would be a great mistake to disband it [EOC] […]The way prejudice is broken down is by women of the right qualifications, the right personality, coming along and just getting on with the job », discours, 29/07/1988.
« I judge people really rather by their personality, not by whether they are men or women; but whether they have a strong enough personality, whether they are decisive enough, whether they are prepared to face questions and not run away from them; and that is much much more important than the particular sex », interview, télévision italienne (RAI), 10/03/1986.
« I think the difference is in personality far from the differences between the male and female in the issues that I have to deal with », interview, magazine Parade, 17/04/1986.
« The battle for women's rights has been largely won », discours, 26/07/1982.
« I hated those strident tones that you still hear from some Women's Libbers' », Ibid.
« I'm not very keen on it [women’s Lib’] [...] No, because I think most of us got to our own position in life without Women's Lib and we got here, not by saying ‘you've got to have more women doing so and so’ but saying ‘look, we've got the qualifications, why shouldn't we have just as much a chance as a man?’ And you'll find that so many male bastions were conquered that way, whereas Women's Lib, I think, has been rather strident, concentrated on things which don't really matter and, dare I say it, being rather unfeminine », interview, Thames TV CBTV, 13/12/1982.
« Conservative women are, above all, practical. For example, we don't seek to advance women's rights by insisting that you, Madam Chairman, be addressed as Madam Chairperson, Madam Chair, or, worse still, just plain Chair », discours, 25/05/1988.
« I know that my mother coped with her life and I just think that women have a special capacity to cope. They manage to cope with a job, they manage to cope with home, they manage to cope with bringing up children, they manage to cope where there's any emergency. And I'm no different from any other », interview, London Weekend Television, 19/07/1984.
« I only know that whatever happens I have to take what comes and just cope with it and just get on with it. But then that is what most women do anyway and they do it very well », interview, Channel 4, 06/11/1989.
Interview, CBS 60 Minutes, 15/02/1985.
« It is partly, I think, that they prefer getting things done rather than making speeches about it and I notice that when women are in Parliament they are extremely practical about how they can move things forward », interview, Central TV, 18/06/1986.
« On the European Council, really, our French friends were so very very difficult and what they did was so very non-commonsense, and women are very good at common sense and men are not », interview, ITN News At Ten, 18/02/1988.
Interview, TV-AM, 30/12/1988. Discours, 08/17/1989.
Interview, Central TV, 18/06/1986.
Interview, Channel 4, 24/05/1987.
« I can't help reflecting that it's taken a Government headed by a housewife with experience of running a family to balance the books for the first time in twenty years—with a little left over for a rainy day », discours, 25/05/1988.
« I do enjoy working with women […] when you are dealing with women who are helping you with taking down the speeches, typing them, they are very efficient and their dedication to the job is total », interview, Channel 4 News, 13/06/1986.
Discours, 23/02/1982. Discours, 12/10/1984. Interview, Channel 4, 15/10/1984. Interview, Woman’s Own, 16/10/1984. Conférence de presse, 07/12/1984. Conférence de presse, 10/06/1985. Interview, Esportare, 04/09/1986. Interview, Thames TV, 04/06/1987.
« However, that rise did not have an impact on the unemployment register because many married women came into jobs », discours, 26/02/1985.
« and what is wrong with having a part-time job, many women like a part-time job? […] do not denigrate part-time work. Many women like part-time work. It suits them. It raises the standard of living of their family and then they go out and spend what they have earned or part of it and then they spend it on other things », interview, Channel 4 News, 13/06/1986.
« What is wrong with working part-time? Many women like it. It suits the pattern of running the house. Often it suits the pattern of being home with the children for some part of the day », interview, Télévision écossaise, 04/09/1986.
Séance de questions au Premier ministre, 14/06/1990. Interview, News of the World, 03/08/1990.
« It is vital that we safeguard the institution of family life, and undoubtedly the mother has the most important role in bringing up the children », séance de questions au Premier ministre, 23/01/1990.
Interview, The Sun, 28/02/1983.
« But it is for them to choose », Ibid.
« I beg, I beg, I beg, never put the children second », interview, Thames TV Afternoon Plus, 06/01/1981.
« it is for mothers to decide whether they can make full and proper arrangements for their children or whether they should wait until later, when their children are off their hands, to return to work », séance de questions au Premier ministre, 28/11/1989.
Interview, Yorkshire Television Woman to Woman, 02/10/1985.
« In my case, preparation for the election involved more than politics. I also had to be dressed for the occasion ».
« Too many businesses still slimming for survival, and I know how difficult slimming is, don't many women? », discours, 14/05/1982.
« I think male Prime Ministers one day will come back into fashion! », interview, TV-AM, 30/12/1988.
« we both belong to that small but distinguished band of women Prime Ministers », discours, 16/11/1983.
Interview radio, BBC World Service, 03/06/1990.
« as the first woman Prime Minister, she is introducing sexist and racist legislation that will make lots of women in my constituency second-class citizens », séance de questions au Premier ministre, 04/12/1979.
Séance de questions au Premier ministre, 30/10/1979.
Séance de questions au Premier ministre, 17/02/1983.
Séance de questions au Premier ministre, 08/03/1988.
« It is a great disappointment to me that in our own Parliament we have only a very small representation of women », conférence de presse, 15/09/1989. « It has been a great sorrow to me that there are not enough [women] in public life », interview, Yorkshire TV, 15/09/1987.
« we want to double, treble, quadruple, the numbers. Let us make a target first of having a third of the House of Commons consisting of women », interview, Central TV, 18/06/1986.
« until there are more of us both in the House of Commons and right at the top we'll still be too conspicuous merely by being women », discours, 23/11/1987.
« It would also make the rest of us a good deal less conspicuous and we should be normal instead of being looked at as something of a phenomenon », discours, 24/02/1987. Voir aussi discours, 15/11/1986, 01/10/1990.
Interview, Newsweek, 04/05/1983. Interview, Central TV, 18/06/1986. Interview, TV-AM Frost on Sunday, 01/09/1990.
Interview, The Daily Mail, 16/03/1984.
L’argument a également été avancé par Harriet Harman du Parti travailliste, mais pour elle cela ne représente qu’une raison parmi d’autres.
« Lady Young was in my Cabinet for a considerable time », conférence de presse, 12/09/1986.
« But if we are to have more women in Government, we must have more women in Parliament. And that means you must select more women candidates—and more of you must put yourselves forward », discours, 25/05/1988.
Conférence de presse, 12/09/1986.
Discours, 26/11/1984. Discours, 25/05/1988.
« It was a Conservative, Nancy Astor, who was the first woman to take a seat in Parliament and who did so with great style and confidence—proving that a woman does not have to be masculine to succeed in a man's world », discours, 25/05/1988.
Séance de questions au Premier ministre, 30/11/1989.
« I'm absolutely satisfied there is nothing more you can do by changing the law to do away with either sex discrimination or racial discrimination. After all I don't think there's been a great deal of discrimination against women, for years, you've been able to come into Parliament, you've been able to be Ministers, you've been able to do many, many things which not many women have taken the opportunity to do », interview, Thames TV Afternoon Plus, 06/01/1981.
Séance de questions au Premier ministre, 19/01/1989.
Interview, Thames TV Afternoon Plus, 06/01/1981.
« One thing that has always struck me is that there have been more women Prime Ministers in the developing world than in the Western World […] Very strange that the opportunities for women were comparatively small in developing countries but the opportunities and value of women politicians have been seized upon in developing countries, greatly to the advantage of women and to those developing countries », discours, 01/10/1990.
« women still seem to be a little bit shy about coming forward », Ibid.
« It does not stop at what one might call the traditional woman's role. I do want to make this clear: defence is just as important to women as it is to men […] Women should be extremely good at finance […] Women should be passionately interested in education […] Women should be very good at transport, very good at foreign affairs, very good at the whole range of things », Ibid.
« You do not start to think: "Now look, I am a woman prime minister, I am different." You think: "I am a Prime Minister. What do I want to do as representing my country. How am I going to get it through?" You do not think in terms of being a woman prime minister or a woman minister or a woman member of Parliament. You think in terms of: "This is my job, how am I going to achieve my objectives? How best can I do it? What is the best way to do it? » , Interview, Central TV, 18/06/1986.
« all three women believed that their accomplishments were based on hard work and thus saw no reason for actions to promote women in politics ».
« Queen bees have an individualistic ideology, knowing that they have achieved success because of their own efforts and assuming, therefore, that any woman can ».
« It’s not a victory for women. It’s a victory for someone in politics », conférence de presse, 11/02/1975, « I don’t notice I’m a woman. I regard myself as Prime minister », interview, The Daily Mirror, 01/03/1980.
« Mark’s Mummy is an MP Now ».
« much male chauvinist hilarity », « Give us a kiss, Maggie ».
« contradictory and puzzling messages she gave to and about women while she was in office ».
« Feminists themselves are in disagreement as to the main consequences of Thatcherism for women, though few would argue that they have been good ».Top of page