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Please observe the following formatting guidelines when sending your manuscript for publication in Miranda.

Format of your article for delivery to Miranda

Articles should be submitted electronically in an email message sent to the appropriate address as an attachment in .doc format (and not .docx).

Articles must be in English or in French. Contributions should be between 5,000 and 10,000 words, unless previous arrangements have been made with the editors.

Please include the following in the file you send:


Please indicate, at the beginning of the article, and in the following order:

  • the title of the paper

  • your first name and last name. Only the first letter should be capitalized.

  • your position (Maître de conférences, Professor…). The first letter should be capitalized.

  • your institutional affiliation

  • an email address of yours that you do not mind seeing printed

Your position, institutional affiliation and email address must be separated by a line break (shift + enter), and not by a paragraph break (enter).

  • write ‘en’ if you article is written in English, write ‘fr’ if you article is written in French.

  • an abstract in French (only for scholarly articles)

  • the key words of your article in French, separated by commas. The first letters of each must be NOT capitalized, unless they are always capitalized. They must be on the same line (no paragraph breaks), separated with commas.

  • an abstract in English (only for scholarly articles)

  • the key words of your article in English, and separated by commas. The first letters of each must NOT be capitalized, unless they are always capitalized. They must be on the same line (no paragraph breaks), separated with commas.

  • the names of the famous persons mentioned by the article to be included in the index nominum, with first their name, then surname. They must be on the same line (no new paragraph). Separate the mention of each person with commas.

Please look at the existing index nominum on the website to check how such and such is worded or spelled out for greater homogeneity (hyphens, middle names etc).

Running text

Please refrain from using any personal formatting.

Set all margins to 2.5 cm and use the standard page setting (A4, portrait).

Body text, notes and bibliography in the Times New Roman 12-pt font, single-spaced and justified.

Paragraphs are separated by a single blank line. They should not be indented, including the first line.

Headings are 14-pt font size, bold face, flush left, separated from the body text by a single blank line.

Subheadings are 12-pt font size, bold face, flush left, separated from the body text by a single blank line.

Do not number your headings and subheadings.

Headings should have an initial capital letter for the first word only. Do not conclude headings with a full stop (of course, question or exclamation marks can be used).

Title: follow the spelling and capitalization conventions of the specific language you are using.

Words in foreign languages should be italicized, except when in double quotation marks.

Use italics for titles. Pay attention when italicizing the titles of books, plays, newspapers, films, long poems, etc., that the punctuation marks that are not part of the original title are not placed in italics.

Italics can also be used to create emphasis. If the words you emphasize are part of a quotation, indicate that the emphasis is yours.

Dates: "18 August 1997"; "in the 1940s"; "1940-44".

Roman numerals in capital letters are used for political systems and main parts of books (e.g. volume numbers). Ex: volume IV, act I

Roman numerals in small capital letters are used for centuries and secondary parts of books (chapters, scenes, introduction). Ex: introduction, vii-xix

Both in English and in French, the centuries should be written in Arabic numerals (19ème siècle, 19th century).

Make sure you use Unicode fonts exclusively, especially if you are writing in alphabets other than the Latin one. Here are Unicode fonts which can be downloaded:


Use French punctuation throughout the article (space before colon, semi-colon, etc.) when the article is in French, including for the English quotes and bibliographical entries. Surround the em dash/tiret cadratin (—) with spaces.

Use English punctuation throughout the article (no space before colon, semi-colon, etc.) when the article is in English, including for the French bibliographical entries. Single spaces are used after most punctuation marks (period, comma, semi colon, exclamation mark, question mark, colon) but not before them. Use the em dash/tiret cadratin (—) set closed (not surrounded with spaces). There are no spaces within double inverted commas (which must be curly quotes not straight ones), brackets, and square brackets. Periods and commas are placed before ending quotation marks whereas question marks and exclamation marks are placed before ending quotation marks only when they are part of the quoted material. Hyphens are used to connect words or syllables, or to divide words into parts. You don't use a space on either side of a hyphen.

Use hard spaces (Ctrl + Shift + Space) for elements that should not be separated.

Do not use accentuation for French capitals (eg: Etats-Unis).


Acronyms should be written in capital letters, without spaces or periods.


Leave additional space above and below indented quotes.

In English, use double inverted commas (which must be curly quotes not straight ones). (“…”) (‘…’).

In French, use angular commas. («°…°») (‘…’).

Close quotation marks before adding punctuation except if the punctuation is in the quote itself, eg. “had entered actual present existence” (Joyce 575).

Quotations exceeding 2 lines should be set off from the body of the text and indented 3 cm on the left, but not on the right. Do not use quotation marks to introduce or conclude these indented quotations, but please leave one line space before and after the quotation. Use Times New Roman 10. The quotations that require a word wrap must have line breaks (shift+enter) and NOT paragraph breaks (enter).

Shorter quotations should be enclosed within the body of the text between quotation marks. There should be no space between the quotes and the words to which they refer.

Use double quotation marks for quotes and single quotation marks for quotes within quotes.

When the quotation is incomplete or edited, omissions, additions or alterations should be indicated within square brackets. (eg. “turning [...] in the widening gyre”). Do not add any square brackets if it is obvious the quotation is just a fragment of a sentence.

Notes or editorial comment within the extracts should appear in square brackets.

Do not combine French quotes and English text in the same sentence or vice-versa (eg. He was absolutely « persuadé de n'y être pour rien »).

Reader-friendly emphasis in running text should be italicized. When using italics in quotations, use the following mentions: (emphasis mine) or (c'est moi qui souligne).

When quotations are translated, indicate the translator.

Make sure the online links are on the related words to be clicked.

Bibliographic references and footnotes

Bibliographical references and general presentation should follow the MLA conventions (see below). Do not underline what is italicized.

The rules illustrated by the following examples apply to all references, without regard to the language in which the publication is written. Each article should conclude with a bibliography which must include all works cited in the article and may also include works that were consulted, but not cited. References to this second category of works should be kept to a strict minimum. Do not skip spaces between entries. The bibliography should NOT be introduced by the word “Bibliography”. Please give an alphabetical bibliography of works cited. The following conventions should be used:

For a book

Last name, First name. Title. City: publisher, date.


Smith, John. A Brief History of the Modern Lyric. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Barthes, Roland. The Pleasures of the Text. R. Miller trans. New York: Hill and Wang, 1975.

If there are several books by the same author: do not repeat his or her name, but use "---" (three hyphens) instead.


Darwin, Charles. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. 1871. London: Penguin Books, 2004.

---. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. 1859. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

If there is an editor:
Millgate, Michael (ed.). The Life and Work of Thomas Hardy, by Thomas Hardy, London: Macmillan, 1989.

For books whose first date of publication is no longer mentioned in recent editions: place the date just after the title, and cite the date of the edition used at the end.

Last name, First name. Title. Date of first publication. City: publisher, date of edition used.

Beer, Gillian. Darwin’s Plots: Evolutionary Narrative in Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Fiction. 1983. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

If there is a volume:
Last name, First name. Title. Vol.x. City: publisher, date.

For a journal article

Last name, First name. "Title." Journal volume: issue (date): pages. [page numbers should not be preceded by the abbreviation "p." or "p." Page numbers are elided: e.g. 4–7, 8–13, 16–18, 34–76, 136–42.]

Kaenel, André. "Is France a Foreign Country?" The European English Messenger 5:2 (1996): 62-65.

For an article in a collection

Last name, First name. "Title." In Title. Ed. First Name Last Name. City: publisher, date. Pages. [page numbers should not be preceded by the abbreviation "p." or "pp."]

Daniels, Henry. "From The Woman in White to Room at the Top; it’s a piece of cake: On the usefulness of prepositional compounds in the teaching and learning of English rhythm." In Idéologies dans le monde anglo-saxon, 9, Ordre et Désordre. Ed. François Chevillet. Grenoble : Université Stendhal-Grenoble III, 1997. 49-67.

If there are more than two editors, use only the first name and replace all the others by et al.

Tranmer, Jeremy. "Theoretical Shifts and Political Commitments: the Work of Stuart Hall in the 1970s and 1980s."
In Cultural Studies. Études Culturelles. Ed. André Kaenel et al. Nancy°: Presses Universitaires de Nancy, 2003.

For conference proceedings

McKenzie, Richard, "Twelfth-Century Pottery Find in Oxfordshire". Paper presented at the Oxford Archaeological Society conference. Woodstock, 18 March 1999.

For a PhD Thesis

Last name, First name. "Title." University, date.

Lecomte, Jean-Marie. "Les composés poétiques dans l’écriture de G. M. Hopkins." Université Nancy 2, 2001.

For a website 

Last name, First name [if known]. "Title of Document" or Title of the Work [for online books]. Last site update. Date site was visited.
<URL Address
http://www.>. Make sure it is working.

Do not cut the address at the end of a line, which will break the link.

The references and URL address must be separated by a line break (shift + enter), and not by a paragraph break (enter).

For a film

Title of the film, dir. name of director, producer, year.

World Trade Center, dir. Oliver Stone, Paramount, 2006.

For a legislative text

Author (a law is often a governmental official text, so a State will often be mentioned here). Title of the text. Number of the article if relevant. Source), date of publication, pages.
Online link.

République française.
Arrêté du 24 mars 2000 fixant la liste des centres de vaccination habilités à effectuer la vaccination antimarile et à délivrer les certificats internationaux de vaccination contre la fièvre jaune. JO du 18 avril 2000. p. 92.
Online link.

The references and URL address must be separated by a line break (shift + enter), and not by a paragraph break (enter).

In-text references

In-text references source information is provided in parentheses immediately following the quotation, by giving the author’s surname followed by the year of publication and a page reference if necessary. Works cited in the text and notes should all be listed in full in the bibliography.

Make sure that the bibliography is sufficiently explicit to elucidate them: e.g. (Barthes 5) is appropriate if you only mention one volume by the said author in your bibliography, but (Barthes 1977, 5) is necessary if there is more than one book by the same author. After a quote in the body of your paper, indicate the source in brackets, using the format specified below as the In-Text Citation form.

For a series of successive pages, use hyphens: (205-220) or (201-2).

For multiple references, use commas: (201, 205, 290).

If the article or paragraph focuses on one single author or work, as in a book review, for example, any redundant information may be omitted and the page numbers might be sufficient.


Page footnotes (not endnotes) in superscript Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3…, not i, ii, iii) should be active as such. Footnote references should be placed outside punctuation marks if they are relevant to the whole sentence, inside punctuation marks if they are relevant only to a piece of information within the sentence. Footnotes may contain information which comments on, expands, or illustrates the text. They may also contain bibliographical details. Any bibliographic references given within footnotes should be presented as in-text references.

If you insert a link, the URL address must be separated from the preceding sentences with a line break (shift + enter), and not by a paragraph break (enter).

In brief, examples for MLA Citation Style (Based on the MLA Handbook, 5th Edition)

Type of Entry

In-Text Citation Form

Works Cited Form

Book. Single Author

(Keyser 75).

Keyser, Elizabeth Lennox.  Whispers in the Dark: The Fiction of Louisa May Alcott.  Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1993.

Book. Two or Three Authors

(Blocker, Plummer, and Richardson 52-57).

Blocker, Clyde E., Robert H. Plummer, and Richard C. Richardson, Jr.  The Two-Year College: A Social Synthesis.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1965.

NOTE: If there are more than three authors, name only the first and add et al. or name each author.

No Author Given

(A Handbook of Korea


A Handbook of Korea. 4th ed.  Seoul: Korean Overseas Information Service, Ministry of Culture and Information, 1982.

Author's Work in an Anthology

(Auerbach 10).

Auerbach, Nina.  "Jane Austen and Romantic Imprisonment."  In Jane Austen in a Social Context. Ed. David Monaghan.  Totowa, NJ: Barnes, 1981. 9-27.

Article in a Journal

(Spear 94).

Spear, Karen.  "Building Cognitive Skills in Basic Writers." Teaching English in the Two-Year College 9 (1983): 91-98.

Electronic Source: Document Within Online Scholarly Project


"Kosovo."  Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.  13 Sept. 1999

Electronic Source

(Hixon 2).

Hixon, Allen L.  "Preventing Street Gang Violence."  American Family Physician 59.8 (April 1999): 4 pp.  3 Aug 1999



World Trade Center, dir. Oliver Stone, Paramount, 2006.

Visual, video and sound material

As previously noted, articles may include visual, video and sound material, provided the necessary rights have been secured. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission for the use of copyrighted material. Miranda cannot and will not commit any funds to the securing of reproduction rights.

You may include internet links referring to pictures and documents, if they are available online.

Should you want to include visual material, please send the illustrations included in a Word file separate from your article. The preferred format for images is jpeg. In the Word file, include, in the following order:

  • Name and surname of the artist (birth date, death date). Title of the picture

  • The picture itself

  • Credits

  • The caption if any

  • References of the picture (date. Technique, size. Place where it is located. City where it is located)

Mention the place where you want to see them inserted in the article by writing [title of the illustration] or [Illustration n°x] within your article in red ink.

For illustrations that are to be directly inserted in the article, their size must not exceed 550 x 350 px (50 Ko).

Video material is to be sent in the Flv format, and sound material in the Mp3 format.


The use of spell-check (included in most word processors) is encouraged as it helps remove most typos. However be careful as grammar-check is not always accurate.

Please make sure that there are no double spaces in your text thanks to the « Find and Replace » tool.

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